1. Compare and contrast the cultural values of the Enlightenment with those of the sixteenth century Northern Renaissance.


2. Compare and contrast the patronage of the arts by Italian Renaissance rulers with that by dictators of the 1930's.


3. Compare the economic roles of the state under seventeenth-century mercantilism and

twentieth century communism. Illustrate your answer with reference to the economic system ofFranceduring Louis XIV's reign under Colbert and of theSoviet Unionunder Stalin.


4. Contrast the ways in which European skilled craftsmen of the mid-eighteenth century and European factory workers of the late nineteenth century differed in their work behavior and in their attitudes toward work.


5. Compare and contrast the motives for Europeans overseas expansion during the Age of

Discovery (15th and 16th C.'s) and during the Age of New Imperialism (19th and early 20th c.'s).


6. Compare and contrast the views of Machiavelli and Rousseau on human nature and the

relationship between government and the governed.


7. Compare and contrast the efforts to ensure European collective security that were made by the victorious powers between 1815 and 1830 (after the Napoleonic Wars) with those made by victorious powers between 1918 and 1930 (after the First World War.)


8. Compare and contrast the roles of the peasantry and of urban workers in the French

Revolution of 1789 to those of the peasantry and of urban workers in the Russian Revolutions of 1917.


9. Describe and analyze the ways in which the development of printing altered both culture and religion ofEuropeduring the period 1450-1600.


10. Contrast European diplomacy in the periods 1890-1914 and 1918-1939 respectively. Include in your analysis goals, practices and results.


11. Between 1450-1800 many women gained power as rulers, some as reigning queens, others as regents. Identify two such powerful women and discuss how issues of gender, such as marriage and reproduction, influenced their ability to obtain and exercise power.


12. Analyze the major social, political, and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1918.


13. "Dictators in 20th c.Europehave had much greater control over culture and society than had divine right monarch of earlier centuries."

Assess the validity of this statement, using specific examples from each era to support

your position.


14. Compare and contrast the attitudes toward science and technology held by Enlightenment thinkers with the various attitudes held by European artists and intellectuals in the 20th century.


15. Compare and contrast the relationships between the great powers andPolandin the periods 1772-1815 and 1918-1939.


16. Compare and contrast the women's suffrage movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with the European feminist movements of the 1960's and 1970's.


17. The nature and motivation for warfare inEuropehas altered many times during the modern era. Describe, compare and analyze the motivation for the Wars of Louis XIV and Napoleon.


18. Louis XIV reigned 1643-1715) wasFrance’s most famous absolute monarch, while

Napoleon III (reigned 1851-1870) a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, became emperor of

Francein an army-direct coup d’etat and ruled in conjunction with a two-house legislature.

Analyze similarities and differences in the nature and style of these two monarchies.


19. Using the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917, discuss and analyze the nature and scope of the revolutionary tradition in modern Europe.


20. Describe and analyze the development of democracy in Great Britainduring the 19th and 20th centuries.


21. Describe and compare the policies of mercantilism and laissez-faire.


22. How would European history be different if, instead of implementing the Balance of Power whenRussiabeatTurkeyin 1771, which resulting in the first Partition of Poland, the Ottoman Empire had been destroyed and Austria and Russia went to war over the Balkans?


23. Machiavelli suggested that a rule should behave both “like a lion” and “like a fox.” Analyze the policies of TWO of the following European rulers, indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli’s suggestions.


Choose two: Elizabeth I onEngland

Henry IV of France

Catherine the Great ofRussia

Frederickthe Great ofPrussia


24. Discuss the relationship between politics and religion by examining the wars of religion from TWO of the following examples:


Dutch Revolt

French Wars of Religion

English Civil War

Thirty Years War


25. Compare and Contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna(1814-1815) and Versailles(1919) in achieving European stability.


26. Choose two monarchs and explain how they successfully or unsuccessfully dealt with

challenges or threats to their power from the nobles.


Henry VIII ofEngland

Catherine II ofRussia

Charles I ofEngland

James I ofEngland

Louis XIV ofFrance

Louis XVI ofFrance

Henry IV ofFrance


27. Compare and contrast the French Jacobins use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror (1793-1794) with Stalin’s use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928-1939.


28. Compare and contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich (1815-1848) and Bismarck (1862-1890.)


29. Contrast the impact of nationalism inGermanyand the Austrian Empire from 1848 to 1914.


30. Compare and contrast the extent to which the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the

Russian Revoluiton (1917-1924) changed the status of women.


30A. Unpopular minority groups have been a persistent historical dilemma.Explain and discuss the reasons why the Huguenots in 17th century France, the Irish in 19th century Great Britain, and the Jews in 20th century Central and Eastern Europe were unpopular with the majority and treated harshly.


31. Analyze various factors that contributed to the process of decolonization in the period 1914 to 1975.


32. Analyze various ways in which government policies during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic era contributed to a greater sense of French national identity in the period 1789 to 1815.


33. Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of nature, with reference to 

specific individuals and their works.


34.  Analyze how the political and economic problems of the English and French 

monarchies led to the English Civil War and the French Revolution.


35.  Analyze how industrialization and imperialism contributed to the development of 

consumer culture in the period 1850–1914.


36. Describe and analyze the impact of the rise of Russia on international relations in 

Europe in the period from 1685 to 1815.


37. Contrast Renaissance Florence with Reformation Geneva with respect to religion, government, and everyday life.